Trang nhất » Tin Tức » ENGLISH


Chủ nhật - 15/10/2017 13:54

While analyzing any social issue, it needs to be kept in mind that the history of ancient. In dian is the history of upper caste men. By the beginning of the age of the Buddha, caste system with its gross in equalities has been well-established in the Indian society. It had become both functional and hereditary.

The word vanna, which may be translated as social grade, rank or caste is literary used in the Pali literature not only as a distinguishing mark, of race or species, but also as constituting a mark of class (caste) distinction.

There were the four original castes (vanna) in ancient India.

  1. Brahmanas : the priests whose main work was in charge of sacrifical cults.

2. Khattiya : the political rulers

3.Vessa : merchants

4. Sudda : laborers, serfs, slavers and servants.

In sharp contrast to the Brahmanas who considered themselves as an superior caste, nesada, vena, rathakara, pukkusa and candala are mentioned as five categories of people who were viewed as nicakulas (base-born).

1. Nesada or nisadas were a hunting tribe. They were the children of bramana father and sudda mother.

2. Vena : were another aboriginal tribe, who lived by hunting and working in bamboos, a vena is the descendant of a vaidehaka father (born of a vessa father and a khattiya mother) and a ambattha mother (born of a brahmana father and a vessa mother).

3. Rathakaras : born of vessa father and sudda mother, were chariot-makers or carriage-builders

4. Pukkusas : who were scavengers or refute, removers the offsprings of nisadas by sudda women.

5. Candalas : were often vituperated as vile and odious but outcasts, an aboriginal tribe who were the descendant of a Sudda father and a brahmana mother. Among the five outcasts, the candalas were of the lowest caste as they were classified by the Brahmana theory of caste. The Candalas and other outcasts, were looked down as untoucheds by the members of Brahmanical society.

The Buddha’s main argument against this was that no man could be superior or inferior in society merely by reason of his birth. The clearly pointed out that the position of man depended on his conduct. This meant that it was a person’s attitude and behavior (karma) which made a man superior or inferior.

The point of view of the Buddha to social reform is always emphasizes the role of individuals as center of social reform. Society is a combination of  the individuals; therefore, individual reform means social reform. Everyone has in himself the ability to become a Buddha. The Buddha only relied on the criterion of deeds, virtue and wisdom. Every body is equal because every one can realize the noble goals. The Buddha denied the view point of the Brahmanas who had advocated that : Man’s social position depends on his birth, the Buddha said :

Na jacca vasalo hoti

Na jacca hoti brahmano

Kammuna vasalo hoti

Kammuna hoti brahmano

“ Not by birth, one becomes the low

Not by birth one becomes the Noble

But by action, one becomes the low

And by action, one becomes the Noble”.

The Buddha was opposed to the fatalistic view that the situation into which one is born is unalterable. What the Buddha taught was that one’s kamma alone is important, not the circumstances of his birth. Another important point that needs clarification is whether a person can not be born into a conventional despised caste because of his previous bad kamma. This possibility is clearly admitted in Buddhism, as understood in the doctrine of kamma.

Though the Buddha is never known to have taught the excellence of caste system, yet his theory of Kamma is seen as the most effective rationalization of caste system. Buddhist tradition conceived cycles of birth and rebirth in individual terms and once the cycle was conceived one’s present position in a low caste was justified by virtue of the deeds in a previous existence and a highter one was promised if one performed the set obligations properly.

Moral and spiritual development  is not a special privilege by virtue of birth, but is open to all. The Buddha taught that all men irrespective of caste are equal before moral law.

Rs Sharma too echoes similar views of some scholars and agrees that only occasionally the Buddhist texts show some lurking sympathy for the lower orders and that early Buddhism could not have crusaded against the upper castes, as they constituted the interest of its patrons

As we known, Buddhism did not believe in caste based privileges. The Buddha’s advice is to work against that kind of divisive phenomenon in society by changing one’s kamma for the better. If one is based-born due to one’s bad kamma, let one change that kamma and be “nobly born” in this life itself. Truly diligent men should be able to achieve this metamorphosis.

The Ambattha sutta of Digha Nikaya, the Assalayana sutta of Majjhima Nikaya, vasettha sutta of the suttanipata are important discources that contain. Some argument against the social attitude of the Brahmanas.

Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá
Click để đánh giá bài viết
Share |
Comment addGửi bình luận của bạn
Mã chống spamThay mới

Những tin mới hơn

Những tin cũ hơn


Tin Được Quan Tâm Nhiều

Tập San Đuốc Sen

Chia Sẻ Cùng Bạn Đọc

Tổ Sư Minh Đăng Quang


Hình Ảnh Tịnh Xá Ngọc Sơn

Tinh Xá Ngọc Sơn

slideshow | Viewer

Quảng Cáo

Giác Ngộ
Đức Phật Bổn Sư
Học Viện Phật Giáo Việt Nam
đạo phật ngày nay
HT Trụ Trì Tịnh xá Ngọc Sơn

Bạn nghe thuyết pháp thường xuyên không?

Chưa nghe bao giờ

Một hai lần gì đó

Một lần vào lễ Phật đản

Ba bốn lần trong 1 năm

Một lần trong 1 tháng

Hai lần trong tháng

Một lần trong tuần

Nghe nhiều lần trong tuần

Liên Hệ Online

Ban Biên Tâp

Đông Hồ

Bảng Tin Thời Tiết

Đang truy cậpĐang truy cập : 31

Hôm nayHôm nay : 1040

Tháng hiện tạiTháng hiện tại : 40216

Tổng lượt truy cậpTổng lượt truy cập : 7987445