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NOTE ON NIBBANA IN THE LIGHT OF THE ABHDHAMMA PITAKA

Chủ nhật - 15/10/2017 13:01

In Abhidhamma there are four paramatthas or ultimate realities which are rupa, citta, cetasika and Nibbana. Nibbana is an ultimate reality (vatthudhamma) which is supramundane (lokuttara), that is, beyond the world of mind and body or the five ‘aggregates’. Nibbana is to be understood by intuitive knowledge and inferential knowledge (paccakkha or pativedha nana and anumana or anubodha nana). To express both ideas it is stated that Nibbana is to be realized by means of the wisdom pertaining to the four Paths of Sainthood and that it becomes an object to the Paths (Magga) and Fruits (Phala). It becomes an object to the Paths and Fruits, and is called Nibbana because it is a departure (ni) from cord-like (vana) craving or attachment.Strickly speaking; Nibbana is that Dhamma which is gained by the complete destruction of all forms of craving or attachment. In others words, Intrinsically (sabhavato) Nibbana is Supreme peaceful (santi) state derived by the cessation of all sufferings (extinction of mental and spiritual defilements or annihilation of the 10 kilesa flames originating in lust, hatred and ignorance).As such it is unique (kevala).

This single Nibbana is viewed as twofold according to the way it is experienced before and after death.

 

Nibbana(Sanskrt-Nirvana) is composed of ni and vana. Ni + vana = Nivana = Nibana = Nibbana. Ni is a particle implying negation. Vana means weaving or craving. It is this craving which acts as a cord to connect the series of lives of any particular individual in the course of his wanderings in Sansara. As long as one is entangled by craving or attachment, one accumulates fresh Kammic forces which must materialise in one form or other in the eternal cycle of birth and death. When all forms of craving are extirpated, Kammic forces cease to operate, and one, in conventional terms, attains Nibbana, escaping the cycle of birth and death. The Buddhist conception of Deliverance is this escape from the ever-recurring cycle of birth and death, and is not merely an escape from ‘sin and hell’.

Etymologically, Nibbana, means non-craving or non-attachment, or ‘departure from craving’. Strictly speaking, Nibbana is that Dhamma which is gained by the complete destruction of all forms of craving or attachment.

Nibbana is also means the blowing out, the extinction, or the annihilation of the flames of lust, hatred, and ignorance.

Nibbana is one fold according to its intrinsic nature(santilakkhana).

According to the way (it is experienced), Nibbana is twofold—

namely,

1.Sa-upadisesa Nibbana( the element of Nibbana with the substrata): It is the type of Nibbana having the 5 aggregates or khandhas as reminder.

2.Anupadisesa Nibbana( the element of Nibbana without the substrata remaining). It is the type of Nibbana not having the 5 aggregates or khandhas as reminder.

Nibbana experienced by Sotapannas, Sakadagamis and Anagamis is Sa-upadisesa-Nibbanadhatu as they have the body and some passions still remaining. Nibbana of the Arahants is also Sa-upadisesa-Nibbanadhatu as they have the body still remaining. It is only the Nibbana of the Arahants after their death that is termed Anupadisesa-Nibbanadhatu because the aggregates and the passions are discarded by them.

 

 

Nibbana is threefold according to its different aspectsnamely.

Sunnata(void), Animitta(Signless),and Appanihita (Longing-free).

Great seers who are free from craving declare that

Nibbana is an objective state which is deathless, absolutely endless, non-conditioned and incomparable.

1.Sunnata(void) Nibbana—Devoid of lust, hatred, and ignorance, or of all conditioned things. Void here does not mean that Nibbana is ‘nothingness’. If emancipation is gained by meditating or concentrating the arising vipassana javana citta on anatta(no-soul or soul-lessness) then the sunnata magga nana,sunnata phala nana and sunnata Nibbana are realized in due course(according to one’s parami).

2.Animitta(Signless) Nibbana—Free from the signs of lust, hatred and ignorance or from the signs of all conditioned things. If emancipation is gained by meditating or concentrating the arising vipassana javana citta on anicca(impermanence) then theanimitta magga nana,animitta phala nana andAnimitta Nibbana are realized in due course(according to one’s parami).

3.Appanihita(Longing-free) Nibbana—Free from the hankerings of lust, hatred, and ignorance or because it is not longed for which any feelings of craving or attachedment. If emancipation is gained by meditating or concentrating the arising vipassana javana citta on dukkha(suffering) then the appanihita(desirelessness or unhankering) magga nana,appanihita phala nana andAppanihita Nibbana are realized in due course(according to one’s parami).

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